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Famous Swayamvaras Indian Mythology

Sita swayamvara

Sita Swayamvara

King Janak was the ruler of the kingdom of Videha. Its capital city was Mithila. Janak was not only a brave king, but was also very well-versed in the Shastras and Vedas.  His daughter was Sita who grew up to be a girl of unparalleled beauty and charm and possessed the greatest of womanly virtues.

The condition of Swayamvara

When Sita became of marriageable age, the king decided to have a Swayamvara, which included a contest. The king was in possession of an immensely heavy bow, presented to him by the God Shiva. Whoever could wield the bow and string it, could marry Sita.

Why the condition was chosen

In earlier part of her life, Sita while playing with her sisters had unknowingly lifted the table over which the “Shiva Dhanush” had been placed; which was something no one in the palace could do. This incident was however observed by King Janaka and he decided to make this incident as the backdrop for swayamvara.

Rama fulfils the condition

Rama, the Prince of Ayodhya, successfully broke Shiva’s bow as he picked it up. And with the breaking of the bow, Janak proposed Sita to Rama in marriage. On the approval of Sage Vishwamitra, Janak sent his messengers to Ayodhya to convey the message to Dasharatha. Upon hearing the story of how his son Rama not only lifted the bow of Shiva, but also broke it, Dasharatha was overjoyed. He gladly accepted the marriage proposal of Rama and Sita.

Rama breaking Shiva’s bow during Sita Swayamvar

Angry Parshurama comes to the palace

At this point, Parshurama arrives at the palace and demanded to know that who has broken the bow of Shiva. He told Rama that Vishvakarma made two identical bows and gave them to Lord Shiva and Lord Vishnu and Rama has broken the former. Parshurama said if Rama could string the bow of Vishnu then only he will accept the greatness of Rama. Rama took it up and strung it and placed an arrow asking Parashurama to where to target the arrow now. Parshurama realized that this person is no ordinary person and he himself is an avatar of Vishnu. He silently retreated from the swayamvara place.

Rama and Parshurama’s confrontation

Marriage of Sita and Rama is solemnised

King Janak at that time gave lot money and other valuables that one can’t even imagine as dowry for Sita. As dowry, King Janak gave several lakh cows, expensive carpets and hundreds of silk clothes for Sita. The dowry also included elephants and horses covered with gold ornaments and chariots with many guards and servants. For Sita to not miss her friends, Janak also sent 100 female helpers as dowry with his daughter.Apart from all this, Janak also gave her daughter 1 crore gold coins, diamonds, pearls and ruby.

Rama and Sita wedding

 

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Famous Swayamvaras Indian Mythology

Seven famous Swayamvaras

Famous Swayamvaras

A swayamvara is the process of choosing a bridegroom by a bride. This event had been the most important event in the life of a girl and there are some great stories in Indian mythology on this. Have a look.

Sita

Perhaps the most famous is Sita’s Swayamvara, where Lord Rama won the hand of Sita.  The condition was set by King Janaka, father of Sita.  Janaka laid out the terms of the challenge. “Here in this great courtyard, on the six-wheeled chariot before you rests the bow of Siva, crafted by none other than the celestial architect Viswakarma . This bow was presented to me by Siva’s pupil, the great warrior-seer Parasuraama. The bow is my most treasured gift. It is a blessing bestowed upon my land and my people. Let us pay our homage to it.”, said he and everyone present stood up in reverence and bowed their heads in acknowledgement of the might of the Destroyer. Then Janaka continued, “Mighty lords, in order to take my daughter Sita’s hand in marriage, you must overcome the task of stringing this great bow. He who first succeeds in this task shall be her groom. May the contest begin!”

Then one by one came the suitors, some with humility and some with pomp. None succeeded. They could not even lift the bow, leave alone string it. Try as they might, they just could not move the heavy weapon. They heaved and tugged at it but it lay there unmoved. Many a ferocious lion were tamed out of shame.

Ravana also came and accepted the challenge. He had ten heads and on each there sat a crown of dazzling gold. Of the same dazzling gold were the rest of his ornaments too. This was an extremely wealthybeing. His face, the same across all his heads, bore a learned expression, like that of a scholar, which further added to the contrast he presented. He had smeared, uniformly across his foreheads three white lines, marking him as a devotee of Shiva. Everyone thought that he would win the hand of Sita, but he failed as well.

Rama took the permission of his guru and attempted to lift the bow. He rose, walked towards the chariot calmly and, like Ravana , walked around it in circumambulation. He then folded his hands and paid respect to the mighty bow. Then, effortlessly, he lifted it.

Rama breaking Shiva’s bow during Sita Swayamvar

Everyone watched in awe as the young prince from Ayodhya placed the bow vertically on the ground, bending it from the top in order to string it, as required. The silence was broken. With what sounded like a clap of thunder, the bow of Lord Shiva, the mighty weapon He had used to raze the city of Tripura to the ground, the heirloom of Mithila, broke under Raama’s strength, ironically announcing him the winner.

The next day, King Dasharatha’s delegation traveled to Mithila to carry out the wedding ceremony. Upon reaching there, he received proposals for marriage of his other three sons. Lakshmana was betrothed to Urmila, another daughter of Janaka. Vishwamitra proposed the marriages of Bharata and Shatrughna with the two daughters of Kushadhvaja, the younger brother of Janaka. Thus Bharata was married to Maandavi and Shatrughna to Shrutakeerti.

The backdrop of this condition was based on an incident when Sita playfully lifted the table, on which the bow was placed.

Draupadi

This is another famous swayamvar which has caught the imagination of everyone. For couple of reasons, She was the most beautiful maiden in the region and second, the condition set was equally impossible to achieve. This event was controversial as well, as Draupadi did not allow Karna to participate.

Arjuna participated as in the guise of a Brahmin as they somehow ran away from the fire which broke at Lakshagriha. Though Arjuna won her hand, but she was married to all five pandavas later. The whole story of her swayamvara is available here.

Arjuna winning Draupadi’s hand

Damyanti

Another noted Swayamvara is Damyanti’s. In this story, Nala has managed to win her heart through a swan even before Damyanti had seen Nala. The swayamvara could have been a mere formality, but gods (Indra) were interested in winning her hand.

After falling in love with Nala, the next step was to have a swayamvara. Getting a swayamvara arranged was not as easy as Damayanti thought. It would be highly improper of her to approach her parents directly. She began to drop hints by eating less and losing weight, by pretending to forget things, by looking lost and gloomy and other such things. At last her mother noticed that Damayanti was not her former self and told the king about it. The king immediately ordered the royal physicians to find out what sickness was troubling her daughter. It was only after the physicians drew a blank that the king realised that his daughter was now a grown-up maiden and it was time for her to get married.

The swayamvara was announced. Nala left immediately. Since he was an excellent equestrian he made good progress. The news of the swayamvara had reached the heavens as well. Four of the demi-Gods, Indra, Agni, Varun, and Yama, had also descended to the earth for the swayamvara. They accosted Nala as he was nearing Vidarbh. Indra told Nala that he would have to do them a favour. Nala protested that he needed to know what was being asked of him before he could commit. Indra got angry. “Humans consider it an honour when we ask them to do something. But you are creating a fuss. Don’t you know our power? We can make you disappear and not reach the swayamvara at all,” he thundered. Nala meekly acquiesced. Indra then told him to approach Damayanti and plead with her to choose from the four demi-Gods. Nala was aghast. “How can I act against my own interest,” he pleaded. The threat of dire consequences was repeated. Nala tried a different route. “We are allowed in the palace only on the day of the swayamvara and that too only where the swayamvara is to be held,” he said, “How will I access Damayanti?” Indra reminded Nala that he was the king of the demi-Gods and would arrange the meeting.

A day before the swayamvara Indra transported Nala to Damayanti’s chamber using his divine powers. The two recognised each other instantaneously. After a long embrace Nala stated the purpose of his visit. Damayanti told him not to worry. He had kept the promise made to the demi-Gods and nothing could dissuade Damayanti from garlanding Nala in the swayamvara ceremony. Nala faithfully repeated the conversation to Indra. “You have kept your word only in letter and not in spirit,” Indra stated, “Now I will do what has to be done.”

Nala and Damyanti

A galaxy of princes was gathered at the swayamvara. Nala sat in one corner so as to avoid the demi-Gods, but they sought him out and sat next to him. At the appointed time Damayanti entered the hall. To her amazement she saw five people exactly like Nala sitting in a corner. She realised that the demi-Gods were trying to trick her but was confident that her love would prevail. After watching the five for a few minutes she realised that four stared at her with unblinking eyes while the fifth was blinking regularly. She garlanded the fifth person. The four demi-Gods assumed their true form and blessed the bride and groom and went back to heaven.

 The Swayamvara of Amba, Ambika and Ambalika

There is another famous swayamvara from the times of Mahabharata This swayamvara could be cited as the reason of downfall of Bhishma.

The King of Kashi had organized a ‘Swayamvara’  (event of selection of a husband of her choice by a princess in public) for his three daughters. Bhishma went to the Swayamvar for his brother Vichtravirya. He defeated the rest of the kings present at the Swayamvar and came with the three ladies and handed them over to Vichitravirya. Amba, the eldest daughter of Kashi King, told Bhishma that she had considered King Shalva as her husband, and that in fact, she was going to accept him.

She also told Bhishma that as he was a pious man, he should do whatever he feels is right. Bhishma let Amba go and got Ambika and Ambalika married to Vichitravirya. After sometime Dhritrashtra was born to Ambika and Pandu was born to Ambalika. The sons of Dhritrashtra and Pandu were known as Kauravas and Pandavas respectively.

Later on, she was rejected by Shalva and she vowed to take Bhishma’s life before killing herself. Amba was reborn as King Drupada’s daughter. When she grew up, she went to the forest and performed rigorous austerities and penances. As a result of these difficult practices, in time, she was transformed into a Man and became known as the warrior Shikandi.

Savitri’s story

Another great story is of Savitri. Here, not exactly a swayamvara was organised, but Savitri chose her husband herself. She was very beautiful and when none asked for her hand, her father told her to choose a husband for herself.

She went on a pilgrimage and selected Satyavan as her life partner. Upon asking Narada about the choice, she was told that though Satyavan has been perfect, but his life was short.

Savitri and Satyavan

Infact, exactly after an year, Satyavan will die. Then there is the legendary story of Savitri saving her husband’s life.

Historical India – Prithviraj and Sanyogita

In the history of India, Prithviraj Chauhan, won rather forcefully took her bride away from the swayamvara.

The love between Prithviraj and Samyukta is one of India’s most popular medieval romances. At the peak of his reign, Prithviraj had annexed vast regions of India to his kingdom, and his fame had spread all across the subcontinent and to Afghanistan. Many lesser kings were envious and wary of his power, including Raja Jaichand of Kannauj. Jaichand’s daughter, Samyukta, was a headstrong girl who was known for her bewitching beauty.

Prithviraj and Sanyogita

Samyukta fell in love with Prithviraj as his reputation dazzled her. She desired nobody but him. For his part, Prithviraj had heard of Samyukta’s loveliness and fell in love with her as well.

However, Jaichand and Prithviraj belonged to rival Rajput clans.

On finding out about the affair, Raja Jaichand was outraged that a romance had been budding behind his back. Jaichand decided to insult Prithviraj and arranged a Swayamvara for his daughter. He invited royalty from far and wide to the ceremony, every eligible prince and king except Prithviraj. He then commissioned a clay statue of Prithviraj, which served as doorman (dwarpala) to Jaichand’s court.

Prithviraj, on hearing about the impending swayamvara, devised a plan to elope with the bride to be.

On the day of the ceremony, Samyukta walked through the court holding the ceremonial garland, ignoring the gazes of her ardent suitors. She passed through the door and put the garland around the neck of Prithviraj’s statue, declaring him her husband. Prithiviraj, who meanwhile was hiding behind the statue, caught Samyukta up in his arms, set her on his horse, and whisked her away to Delhi. Raja Jaichand was enraged.

Outside India

This practice was not limited to India and there is a famous incident is captured by Firdausi in Shahnama. In pre-Islamic Iran, of one Kitayun, eldest daughter of the Emperor of Constantinople, selecting the Iranian Gushtasp. With a view to procure a husband for one of his daughters, the Emperor determines to hold a grand assembly of illustrious and wise men for her to see and select from. She does not find a suitable husband in the first assembly and a second one is held, where she places the crown on Gushtap’s head. Gushtasp, also known as Vishtaspa, returns to Iran with his bride and is crowned King.

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Famous Swayamvaras Indian Mythology

Damyanti Swayamvara

Damyanti

Damyanti was a very beautiful lady, who was the daughter of King of Vidarbha. She was so beautiful, that even the gods wanted to marry her. King of Devas, Lord Indra wanted that she should marry a god and not Nala.

Damyanti – A beautiful maiden

Damyanti’s sickness

She wanted a swayamvara to be arranged for her, but getting a swayamvara arranged was not as easy as Damayanti thought. It would be highly improper of her to approach her parents directly. She began to drop hints by eating less and losing weight, by pretending to forget things, by looking lost and gloomy and other such things. At last her mother noticed that Damayanti was not her former self and told the king about it. The king immediately ordered the royal physicians to find out what sickness was troubling her daughter. It was only after the physicians drew a blank that the king realised that his daughter was now a grown-up maiden and it was time for her to get married.

Announcement of Swayamvara

The swayamvara was announced. News reached Nala also and Nala left immediately. Since he was an excellent equestrian he made good progress. The news of the swayamvara had reached the heavens as well.

Ruckus between Indra and Nala

Four of the demi-Gods, Indra, Agni, Varun, and Yama, had also descended to the earth for the swayamvara. They accosted Nala as he was nearing Vidarbh. Indra told Nala that he would have to do them a favour. Nala protested that he needed to know what was being asked of him before he could commit. Indra got angry. “Humans consider it an honour when we ask them to do something. But you are creating a fuss. Don’t you know our power? We can make you disappear and not reach the swayamvara at all,” he thundered. Nala meekly acquiesced. Indra then told him to approach Damayanti and plead with her to choose from the four demi-Gods. Nala was aghast. “How can I act against my own interest,” he pleaded. The threat of dire consequences was repeated. Nala tried a different route. “We are allowed in the palace only on the day of the swayamvara and that too only where the swayamvara is to be held,” he said, “How will I access Damayanti?” Indra reminded Nala that he was the king of the demi-Gods and would arrange the meeting.

Meeting of Nala and Damyanti

A day before the swayamvara Indra transported Nala to Damayanti’s chamber using his divine powers. The two recognised each other instantaneously. After a long embrace Nala stated the purpose of his visit. Damayanti told him not to worry. He had kept the promise made to the demi-Gods and nothing could dissuade Damayanti from garlanding Nala in the swayamvara ceremony. Nala faithfully repeated the conversation to Indra. “You have kept your word only in letter and not in spirit,” Indra stated, “Now I will do what has to be done.”

The swayamvara

A galaxy of princes was gathered at the swayamvara. Nala sat in one corner so as to avoid the demi-Gods, but they sought him out and sat next to him. At the appointed time Damayanti entered the hall. To her amazement she saw five people exactly like Nala sitting in a corner.

Damyanti recognises Nala

She realised that the demi-Gods were trying to trick her but was confident that her love would prevail. After watching the five for a few minutes she realised that four stared at her with unblinking eyes while the fifth was blinking regularly. She garlanded the fifth person. The four demi-Gods assumed their true form and blessed the bride and groom and went back to heaven. Another account says that Gods did not have shadows while Nala, being a human, had a shadow.

Nala and Damyanti

This shows that Damyanti was not only beautiful, but she had the brains too.

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Draupadi Famous Swayamvaras Indian Mythology

Draupadi Swayamvara

Draupadi Swayamvara

Draupadi was the beautiful girl of King Drupad. When she attained youth, Drupad wanted her wedding to happen. Thus, Draupadi swayamvara ( the ceremony of choosing a groom) was organised with great fanfare. When this ceremony happened, Pandavas were supposed to be dead in the house of Lakshagriha.

The suitors

Many dignitaries, who hoped to win her hand were present. Duryodhana was present along with Karna. Shri Krishna was also present. Balrama, the brother of Shri Krishna present there. Kings of Kosala, Madra and Chedi were also present in the swayamvara.

And last, but not the least, the Pandavas were also present at the Swayamvara, but in the guise of Brahmins. No body knew that they were alive and participating in this event.

The target

Draupadi’s father, Drupad was fond of Arjuna and secretly hoped that Arjuna will win her daughter’s hand. Thus he set forth a condition which was impossible for anyone except Arjuna, to fulfill.

The challenge was to pierce the eye of a revolving fish, which was erected on a pole, by looking at the reflection in a water filled vessel. The bow was a heavy one, and very few could lift it.

Announcement by Dhristadyumna

Dhristadyumna, the brother of Draupadi, announced that whosoever can bend the bow and pierce the eye of the fish, may marry Draupadi.

Having spoken thus, the prince recited to his sister the names of the royal guests, their lineage and their deeds of fame, and bade her award the golden garland to the successful archer.

The rajahs then descended from their gorgeous thrones and gathered around Draupadi as the bright gods gather around Párvati, the mountain bride of Shiva. Their hearts were filled with love for the maiden and with hate for one another. Rivals frowned upon rivals. Those who had been close friends became of a sudden angry enemies because that Draupadi was so beautiful.  Shri Krishna, and Balarama alone remained aloof; calmly and self-restrained they stood apart, while rajah opposed rajah like to angry elephants.

The competition begins

One by one , the kings came and tried to lift the bow. But none of them were able to do so, putting the arrow on the bow was a tough ask. Duryodhana and Dushashana also failed to lift the bow. Thus, to defend the honour of Hastinapur, Karna decided to take part in the competition.

Karna lifts the bow

Karna, arguable the best archer along with Arjuna, could lift the bow easily. It appeared that he would achieve the condition which Drupada set forth. Drupada and his son were alarmed, fearing he might succeed and claim the bride. Suddenly Draupadi intervened, for she would not have the son of a charioteer for her lord. She said, speaking loudly: “I am a king’s daughter, and will not wed with the base-born. . . .

Thus Karna, left the competition without having to try.

As the day passed and Kings failed, it appeared that no one could be able to fulfill the condition set forth by Drupada. A gloom was descending over the court.

A young brahmin arises

Just when it looked at no body could fulfill the target, Arjuna , clad in the guise of Brahmin, rose.

All kings thought that how a weak looking Brahmin can achieve the feat where all the kings have failed. But Arjuna, took the permission of Dhristadyumna and confidently walked towards the target.

 The murmur

Some ridiculed his efforts, while some said that the Brahmin knows best his own skill. He would not go forward if he were not sure of success.

An aged priest endeavoured to restrain Arjuna, lest he should by his failure bring ridicule upon the Brahmans; but the hero would not be thwarted. He strode forward like to a stately elephant and bared his broad shoulders and ample chest. He was nimble as a lion, and calm and self-possessed.

Ere he lifted the bow, he walked round it; then he addressed a prayer to the gods.  He stood up unmoved and serene as a mountain peak, and he bent the bow and fixed an arrow in it.

The young brahmin pierces the target

All eyes watched him. He drew the cord, and the arrow flew upwards with a hissing sound; it hit the target eye, and the golden fish fell over and clashed upon the ground.

Draupadi swayamvara story

Like distant thunder arose the plaudits of the multitude; hundreds of Brahmans shouted in ecstasy and waved their scarfs. A thousand trumpets clamoured in triumph, and the drums were beaten loud.

Draupadi is overjoyed and garlands Arjuna

The heart of Draupadi was filled with joy, and, smiling coyly, she advanced towards Arjuna and flung the golden bridal garland over his shoulders. Celestial blossoms fluttered, descending through the air, and the sound of celestial music was heard. Drupada is also visibly pleased.

Finally, the objective of having Draupadi swayamvara was fulfilled.

The protest of Kings

When the reality dawned over the kings, they felt humiliated that what they could not do, a weak Brahmin has achieved. Citing that Draupadi should be married to warrior class (Kshatriya), they attacked the humble Brahmin.

Pandavas rose in unison

As Arjuna was attacked, Bhima gave him company with an uprooted tree.  Yudhishthira and the younger brothers were soon helping them, and the Brahmins  also came forward to give their aid.

For a moment the kings paused, pondering at the daring of the priestly band, but impatient Karna and angry Shalya, King of Madra, dashed forward like two infuriated elephants against Arjuna and Bhima.

The duel of Karna and Arjuna

The brothers sustained the attack, and soon Karna was struck by Arjuna. Karna was amazed with the skills of the Brahmin, and enquired that who was he to possess the great skill of an archer. He said “There is no man who can thwart me with defiance as you have done even now, save Arjuna alone.”

Arjuna politely replied that I am a humble Brahmin who wants to protect himself. Soon Karna withdrew, realizing that this was no ordinary Brahmin, but Bhima and Shalya fought valiantly. Fighting furious like two elephants, they continued for a while, before Bhima defeated him.

Arjuna takes Draupadi

Soon enough, Arjuna took Draupadi by the hand and led her away in peace from that scene of angry strife. So ended the Draupadi swayamvara, and Krishna declared that the bride had been fairly won.

Pandavas were recognised

Drishtdyumna, Draupadi’s brother, followed them to find out who the Brahmin was. When they reached their hut, the Pandavas called out to their mother, Kunti, “Look, Mother, what we have brought.” Kunti replied from inside the hut, “Share it among yourselves,” thinking that they had brought food.

Draupadi marries Pandavas

When she saw the bride and was told that she was Arjuna’s wife, Kunti was very unhappy at what she had said. As a custom, the Pandavas would have to obey every word that she had said – Draupadi would have to become the wife of all five brothers. Just then Krishna came to their hut. He told Kunti, “in her previous life Draupadi had worshipped Shiva to get a husband with certain qualities. So, Lord Shiva had given her a boon which has resulted in her having five husbands” On hearing this Kunti felt satisfied and Draupadi became the wife of all five Pandavas.

Pandavas marry Draupadi

Dhrishtadyumna who had followed them, heard all this. He went back to his father Drupada and said, “I have good news for you. The brave Brahmin who married Draupadi was none other than the great Arjuna.” Drupada was delighted to hear this. But when he came to know that Draupadi was to be the wife of all the five Pandavas, he was sad, because this was against the law. At that time, Sage Vyasa came there. He told Drupada, “Though such a marriage is not permitted in the Holy Scriptures, this particular marriage is a result of a boon by Shiva himself, so it is not against the law.” Satisfied Drupada arranged for a reception at the palace. The Pandavas were invited and the wedding between the Pandavas and Draupadi was performed with great splendour.

Draupadi could have ended up with fourteen husbands